La jerarquía de necesidades de Abraham Maslow

Inteligencia Emocional: Gestión de las Emociones

Si toda motivación es hija de un deseo, éste no es otra cosa que una necesidad, aunque existan muchos niveles diferentes de ella.

El célebre psicólogo Abraham Maslow, considerado el padre de la motivación, define las acciones humanas como ‘la consecuencia de las necesidades sentidas por el individuo, psíquica o físicamente’.

Maslow establece que las necesidades del hombre están ordenadas en una jerarquía de preponderancia, que es la siguiente:

a)Fisiológicas: necesidades básicas como la de alimentarse, calmar la sed, aliviar el dolor, procurarse abrigo. Son recurrentes y repetitivas.

b)Seguridad: defensa del medio ambiente. Seguridad ante sucesos o ambientes amenazadores.

c)Social: necesidad de pertenencia, afiliación o identificación con un grupo.

d)Estima: necesidad de estima, reconocimiento, afecto.

e)Autorrealización: la necesidad de sentirse realizado, competente, eficiente, etc.

Abel Cortese

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